Conjunctions In English: 4 Types With Examples List and Exercises

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Conjunctions In English: 4 Types With Examples List and Exercises! Conjunctions are words that connect two clauses, or groups of words, together. There are four types of conjunctions in English: co-ordinate conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, relative pronouns, and correlative conjunctions. In this article, we will look at each type of conjunction and give examples of how they are used. We will also provide some exercises so that you can practice using these conjunctions yourself.

Conjunctions are words that join two or more elements together. The most common conjunctions are and, but, or, and so. These four conjunctions can be used to connect two independent clauses, as in the following example:

  • I’m studying for my exams, but I still have time for fun.

In this sentence, the conjunction ‘but’ connects the two independent clauses I’m studying for my exams and I still have time for fun. Without the conjunction, the sentence would be two separate sentences: I’m studying for my exams. I still have time for fun.

Conjunctions can also be used to connect two phrases or two words, as in the following examples:

  • The dog is small but friendly. (phrases) We’re out of eggs and flour. (words)

And finally, some conjunctions can be used to connect three or more elements, as in the following example:

  • I study English, French, and Spanish.

conjunctions in english

4 Types of Conjunction

Now that we have seen how conjunctions are used, let’s take a closer look at the four types of conjunctions in English.

1- Co-ordinate Conjunctions

Coordinate conjunction is a word that joins two or more clauses of equal grammatical rank and importance. The most common coordinate conjunctions are “and,” “but,” “or,” “nor.”

Coordinate conjunctions are also sometimes called “FANBOYS” for short.

For example:

  • I’m studying hard, but I’m still struggling in school.

In this sentence, the clauses joined by the conjunction “but” are of equal importance. If we remove the conjunction, the sentence becomes:

  • *I’m studying hard. I’m still struggling in school.*

This version sounds strange because the two clauses are no longer of equal importance. The first clause is now an independent clause, while the second is a dependent clause. Dependent clauses cannot stand alone as a sentence; they must be connected to an independent clause.

Therefore, we need a conjunction to join these two clauses together and signal that they are of equal importance.

Other examples of coordinate conjunctions include:

  • I’m studying hard, so I’m doing better in school.
  • I’m studying hard, and I’m getting good grades.
  • Are you going to the movies or staying home tonight?

2- Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction is a word that joins an independent clause to a dependent clause. Unlike a coordinate conjunction, a subordinating conjunction does not signal that the two clauses are of equal importance. Instead, it signals that the second clause is subordinate, or less important, than the first clause.

Some common subordinating conjunctions include:

after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order, that, once, provided, that, rather, than, since, so that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, whether, while, etc.

For example:

  • I’m studying hard so that I can get good grades.

In this sentence, the conjunction “so that” signals that the first clause, “I’m studying hard,” is more important than the second clause, “I can get good grades.”

If we remove the conjunction, the sentence becomes:

  • *I’m studying hard. I can get good grades.*

This version sounds strange because it’s not clear why the person is studying hard. Are they doing it for fun? For a hobby? We don’t know. But when we add the conjunction “so that,” it becomes clear that they are studying hard in order to achieve a specific goal – getting good grades.

Other examples of subordinating conjunctions include:

  • Although I’m studying hard, I’m still struggling in school.
  • Because I’m studying hard, I’m doing better in school.
  • I’m studying hard so that I can get good grades.
  • I’m studying hard even though I don’t like school.

3- Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are pairs of words that are used to join two elements of equal importance. Unlike coordinate and subordinating conjunctions, which can be used alone, correlative conjunctions must be used in pairs.

Some common correlative conjunctions include:

both…and, not only…but also, whether…or, just as…so too, the more…the less, etc.

For example:

  • I’m studying hard both at school and at home.

In this sentence, the correlative conjunction “both…and” joins two elements of equal importance – studying at school and studying at home. If we remove the conjunction, the sentence becomes:

  • *I’m studying hard at school. I’m studying hard at home.*

This version is grammatically correct, but it sounds a bit strange because it’s not clear how the two actions are related. Are they separate activities? Are they part of a larger activity? We don’t know. But when we add the conjunction “both…and,” it becomes clear that the two actions are related and of equal importance.

Other examples of correlative conjunctions include:

  • Not only am I studying hard, but I’m also getting good grades.
  • Whether you like it or not, you have to go to school.
  • Just as I was getting ready for bed, the power went out.
  • The more you study, the better your grades will be.

4- Conjunctive Adverbs

A conjunctive adverb is a word that joins two independent clauses. Unlike a coordinating conjunction, which signals that the two clauses are of equal importance, a conjunctive adverb signals that the second clause is subordinate, or less important, than the first clause.

Some common conjunctive adverbs include:

accordingly, furthermore, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, subsequently, then, etc.

For example:

I’m studying hard. Consequently, I’m doing better in school.

In this sentence, the conjunctive adverb “consequently” signals that the first clause, “I’m studying hard,” is more important than the second clause, “I’m doing better in school.” If we remove the conjunction, the sentence becomes:

*I’m studying hard. I’m doing better in school.*

This version is grammatically correct, but it sounds a bit strange because it’s not clear how the two actions are related. Are they separate activities? Are they part of a larger activity? We don’t know. But when we add the conjunction “consequently,” it becomes clear that the two actions are related and that the first one caused the second one.

Other examples of conjunctive adverbs include:

  • I’m studying hard. Consequently, my grades are improving.
  • I’m studying hard. Hence, I’m doing better in school.
  • I don’t like school. Nevertheless, I’m going to continue studying hard.

Exercises Related to Conjuncation

  1. Join the following pairs of sentences using a coordinating conjunction:

I’m studying hard. I’m getting good grades.

  1. Join the following pairs of sentences using a subordinating conjunction:

I don’t like school. I’m going to continue studying hard.

  1. Join the following pairs of sentences using a correlative conjunction:

I’m studying hard at school. I’m studying hard at home.

I’m studying hard both at school and at home.

  1. Join the following pairs of sentences using a conjunctive adverb:

I’m studying hard. My grades are improving.

I’m studying hard. Consequently, my grades are improving.

  1. Add a coordinating conjunction to the following sentence:

I’m studying hard but I’m not getting good grades

  1. Add a subordinating conjunction to the following sentence:

I don’t like school so I’m going to continue studying hard

  1. Add a correlative conjunction to the following sentence:

I’m studying hard at school and at home

  1. Add a conjunctive adverb to the following sentence:

I’m studying hard. My grades are improving

  1. Rewrite the following sentence using a coordinating conjunction:

I’m studying hard. I’m getting good grades

  1. Rewrite the following sentence using a subordinating conjunction:

I don’t like school. I’m going to continue studying hard

  1. Rewrite the following sentence using a correlative conjunction:

I’m studying hard at home and at school

Answers

  1. I’m studying hard and I’m getting good grades.
  2. Although I don’t like school, I’m going to continue studying hard.
  3. I’m studying hard both at home and at school.
  4. I’m studying hard; as a result, my grades are improving.
  5. I’m studying hard, but I’m not getting good grades.
  6. I don’t like school, so I’m going to continue studying hard.
  7. I’m studying hard at home and at school.
  8. I’m studying hard; consequently, my grades are improving.
  9. I’m studying hard and I’m getting good grades.
  10. I don’t like school, but I’m going to continue studying hard.
  11. I’m studying hard at home and at school.

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